Case Report

Acute myeloid leukaemia with myelodysplasia-related change in a child living with human immunodeficiency virus infection, a transformation from underlying juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia

Vongai Mashoko, Diane Mackinnon, Jenifer Vaughan
South African Journal of Oncology | Vol 4 | a154 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajo.v4i0.154 | © 2020 Vongai Mashoko, Diane Mackinnon, Jenifer Vaughan | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 05 September 2020 | Published: 17 December 2020

About the author(s)

Vongai Mashoko, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; and, Department of Paediatrics, Paediatric Oncology Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa
Diane Mackinnon, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; and, Department of Paediatrics, Paediatric Oncology Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa
Jenifer Vaughan, Department of Molecular Medicine and Haematology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; and, Molecular Medicine and Haematology, National Health Laboratory Services, Johannesburg, South Africa


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Abstract

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) is an aggressive clonal haematopoietic disorder that presents in early childhood. It is classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an overlap myeloproliferative or myelodysplastic disorder. The pathogenesis of JMML has been well-explained at the molecular level using clear diagnostic criteria. There is limited literature on JMML in the context of HIV infection. The only curative modality for the majority of patients with JMML is allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The role of other chemotherapeutic approaches is to ameliorate the disease but they are no substitute for allogeneic HSCT. We report a case of a 59-month-old child with vertically transmitted HIV-infection who was referred to the authors’ institution for further management.


Keywords

paediatric oncology; leukaemias; myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic; JMML; HIV infection

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